Interpretation of user clause: was there a positive obligation to use the property for the specified use

Youseffi v Musselwhite ([2014] EWCA Civ 885, CA (Eng)) is an English Court of Appeal case arising out of a lease renewal application under Part II of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954. It does, however, raise a general issue about the construction of user clauses.

The clause in question read:

‘at all times during the said term to use the Premises for the purposes of any retail trade within Classes A1 and A3 of the Town & Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 and not to use the Premises or any part thereof for any other purpose without the written consent of the Landlord (such consent not to be unreasonably withheld)…’

There was no keep-open clause.

The tenant had not used the demised premises for the permitted use and the question was whether this covenant positively required the property to be put to the permitted use or whether it was only negative, restraining other uses of the property.

The Court of Appeal, Gloster LJ giving the only full judgment, noted that the clause began with a positive obligation and that, therefore, it did impose a positive obligation to put the property to the permitted use.

Michael Lower


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